Normal Springtime Bertran de Born's Springtime
Bertran de Born:
was a minor nobleman, though he had his own castle that he used for protection during war times
fortunes depended on his success in war
was a spokesman for the noble mercenaries
disliked times of peace because he would usually be poor
loved war since mercenaries paid him during this time
utilized the 'sirventes' genre mostly to satirize the ‘canso’
was crusader as well as a troubadour
had an interesting view of the youthful qualities ('joves' in occitan) of a man that he showed in his writing style
In Bel m'es, quan vei chamjar lo senhoratge, Born states "Joves es hom que lo sieu ben engatge", "Vielhs es rics hom, quan re no met en gatge"
English: "A man is young when he stakes everything he has", "A man is old when he won't risk a thing"
In this example, Born is showing his audience that he ties youthfulness with risk and spontaneity without considering the consequences
attempted to use crusade lyric to reconcile spiritual and material life
celebrated the ritual beauty and the horror of medieval warfare
“for war made a man and made money”
Be.m platz lo gais temps de Pascor:
Bertran de Born had an interesting Natureingang that switches from a general springtime setting to the setting of war during the spring
Occitan: "Be.m platz lo gais temps de pascor ... quan vei per champanha renjatz chavaliers e chavals armatz"
English: “I love the joyful time of Easter … when I see ranged along the field knights and horses armed for war”
Bertran de Born loved displays of physical strength especially in war
“I am pleased by a lord when he is first in attack”
Bertran de Born finds no pleasure in peace since fighting was profitable for him
“it pleases me when I see strong castles besieged”
Bertran de Born was pleased because he was about to make a good amount money
Intentio Recta Argument:
intentio recta defined in The Voice of the Unrepentant Crusader: “Aler M’estuet” by The Chântelain D’arras by Marisa Galvez
In taking up the cross, the preacher Bernard of Clairvaux said that crusaders should have a pure conscience (pura conscientia) and "right intention" (intentio recta). Together with other clerical apologists of the Second Crusade such as Peter the Venerable and Ralph Niger, who subscribed to the pilgrimage tradition, Bernard emphasized that the physical imitatio Christi was of little value unless it was accompanied by an internal, spiritual imitatio. This imitatio took the form of a moral regeneration that was a mark of true repentance.
Bertran de Born wrote crusade lyric to help influence noblemen to go on crusade, however, by his background and character, we know that making money was his main goal for any war.
It is known that Bertran de Born loved his material possessions as well.
In his lyric, "Miei sirventes vuolh far de.ls reis amdos", Bertran de Born discusses the two kings who want to go to war and are willing to pay heavily for soldiers.
He continues to talk about the war, saying "lo perdr' er grans e.l guazanhs er sobriers", meaning "the loss will be great [referring to the dead], but the winnings will be greater"
In his tornada he says, "mas si.l reis ve, ieu ai en dieu fianza qu'ieu serai per quartiers; e si sui vius, er mi grans benananza, e si ieu muoir, er mu grans deliuriers"
English: "If the King comes, I put my faith in God I shall be alive or in pieces. And if I am alive, it will be great luck, and if I am dead, a great deliverance"
From the Galvez's excerpt, we see that physical imitatio Christi is of little value unless accompanied by spiritual imitatio where imitatio took the form of moral regeneration which marked true repentance, both of these was essential in determining if one truly had intentio recta
Bertran de Born introduces God in this tornada, saying he will put all his faith in God, he finalizes it by saying if he was dead it would be a great deliverance.
Born here is showing a little physical imitatio by personifying God but he is also showing that he yet to reach spiritual imitatio.
All through the lyric he shows his joy in war and the money he will make from it, but he knows the only way he can reach true deliverance with God is if he was to end up dead
Since Born only proposes him reaching spiritual imitatio in the afterlife, we can assume that he did not have 'intentio recta' at least while living on Earth
Also by his background, I believe Bertran de Born did not have ‘intentio recta’ with regard with crusade since one can argue that while he was on crusade, his intentions were more to pillage, besiege castles, and gain money and possessions instead of to save the holy land